What is Paraffin Wax?
Waxes are defined as a solid (at room temperature) but it would be free-flowing liquids at slightly higher temperatures. crude petroleum is the main commercial source of wax and mineral wax can also be obtained from lignite, plants, animals, and insects.
The estimation of Overall synthetic wax consumption in North America in 2010 was 420 million pounds (AFPM 2013a). The fastest growing wax markets are belonging to the hydrogenated vegetable and natural palm waxes. Usually, Synthetic waxes are represented by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) and polyethylene (PE) waxes currently represent 11 percent of global wax supply (Zaworski, 2011).
nowadays, the United States imports a significant share of the waxes supplied (65.3 percent). International trade has grown increasingly important in wax markets, with the United States being a major global market demanded. Important import source countries include China and Canada (AFPM, 2013a).
Paraffin Wax Production
In equilibrium condition Paraffin is completely dissolved in crude oil. make Changes in temperature and pressure leads to disturbing this equilibrium, which might result in paraffin precipitation and crystallization. Basically, the solubility of the paraffin wax is very sensitive to temperature changes. For example, if the temperature of a surface of the pipe is below the oil Cloud Point (The Cloud Point is the temperature at which paraffin starts to crystallize in the solution), high molecular weight paraffin waxes are deposited. As a result of having lower (below the Cloud Point) crude oil temperature, paraffin wax crystals precipitate and adhere via colliding with surface and deposits. On the other hand, a mechanism like shear dispersion, Brown diffusion, gravity, thermophoresis, and turbo phoresis helps to drive the wax molecule particle to deposit on the pipeline wall. The main factors that affect paraffin wax deposition in flow systems, which are flow rate, temperature differential, and cooling rate, as well as surface properties.
Wax distillates are produced from three different types namely, the batch-type, continuous-type, and pipe-still processes. They are not obtainable in the cracking process, due to the hydrocarbons of the feedstock are chemically changed, or undergo pyrogenic decomposition, making recovery of paraffinic waxes well-nigh impossible. Naphthenic are preferred to paraffinic feedstocks for the best yields of petrol by the process of cracking.
The combination of wax-oil that distills via petroleum below about 860°F including wax would be able to filter from oil in simple filter presses. In fractionating crude petroleum, the "raffinate" or cut defined as paraffin distillate, boiling from 170 to ·310°0 (338 to 590°F) when distilled at very low pressure, can be separated into solid wax and liquid oil fractions by chilling and filter-pressing. The solid fraction which is including 65 percent of wax is the slack wax that is sweated and refined to the normal paraffin wax of commerce. removing the wax from possible wax distillate in order to improve the lubricating properties of the oil and make it chill proof is important. The wax distillate is therefore customarily pumped to the paraffin sheds, where it is allowed to repose in tanks to boost settling at the lowest room temperature. Next, it is pumped through a cooling unit bank to hydraulic presses which squeeze out the wax from the chilled distillate (see Slack Wax, p. 395).
next paraffin distillate is obtained from the "crude" a higher boiling cut and defined as a high-viscosity fraction, that is distilled. Moreover, this fraction contains wax, but because of its microcrystalline nature does not lend itself well to separation and filter-pressing. The high-viscosity fraction is cold settled and centrifuged, so yielding an oily wax portion, defined as petrolatum stock and oil. Petrolatum would be refined from the petrolatum stock, or the microcrystalline wax in petrolatum stock that is separated by recrystallization and settlings from naphtha solution at reduced temperatures. sometimes this type of wax is referred to as "petrolatum wax;" at least 85 percent of its hydrocarbons are of a wax type, whereas petrolatum itself has only 25 percent of hydrocarbons of a wax type.
Paraffin Wax Usages
Waxes have been used in several different ways since the early days of humankind. The most important waxes application is belonging to candles. Although no longer used for primary illumination, in the wax market, candles are currently the fastest growing segment. Candles that burn well and do not soot are high-quality products.
based on the purity of the waxes, Candle producers make sourcing decisions. The process of Sulzer wax deoiling has been established as the leading technology for the production of high-purity paraffin waxes. In addition to their use in candles, there are several applications for high-purity waxes:
- Waxes are widely used in cosmetic products such as lipstick, mascara, moisturizing creams, and sun blocker. Fully refined wax is non-toxic and many products are approved for direct use in food and personal care formulations (source: American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers AFPM).
- Wax is used to cover certain types of cheese that would dehydrate if not properly protected. It is sprayed on citrus and other types offruitto protect the fruit from oxidation and enhance its appearance.
- Waxes are present in most hot-melt adhesive formulations, where they control the viscosity of the adhesive and contribute to open time, flexibility, and elongation.
- Wax is a vital component in rubber tire formulations. It is added for protection against atmospheric ozone that “dries” unprotected rubber, leading to cracking that compromises the strength of the tire. Wax creates a physical barrier between the tire surface and the atmosphere
Paraffin waxes are used in a wide range of industries, for example using as a major constituent or as an end-product, as a manufacturing aid or an important additive, the productions name are:
- Candles, torches, tapers, matches, floor polishes.
- Car polishes, corrosion protectors.
- Electrical industries, cable filling compounds.
- Tires and rubber products, as ozone protection.
- Paper production.
- Carbon paper, crayons, and pencils.
- Ski waxes.
- Plastic processing, sliding, parting compounds and stabilizers.
- Coating waxes in the wood processing industry.
- Protection against radiation.
- Wax figures and image, hot melts.
- Fertilizer coatings.
- Base products for detergents, softeners, deforming agents, flame retarding-products, paints, lacquers and cleaning materials, etc.