Iran naphthalene, naphthalene exporter, naphthalene producer, naphthalene supplier,    Iran naphthalene, naphthalene of Iran, naphthalene supplier, naphthalene middle east

Naphthalene



Naphthalene

ATC PetrOil Company as a major producer, supplier, and exporter of several petrochemical products in the Middle East is located in Iran. ATC PetrOil Company has numerous experiences in exporting and is active in the case of Naphthalene supplying.

What is Naphthalene?

Naphthalene is a white solid that evaporates easily. It is also called mothballs, moth flakes, white tar, and tar camphor. When mixed with air, naphthalene vapors easily burn. Fossil fuels, such as petroleum and coal, naturally contain naphthalene. Burning tobacco or wood produces naphthalene. The major commercial use of naphthalene is to make other chemicals used in making polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. The major consumer products made from naphthalene are moth repellents, in the form of mothballs or crystals, and toilet deodorant blocks. It is also used for making dyes, resins, leather tanning agents, and the insecticide carbaryl.

Naphthalene has a strong but not unpleasant smell. Its taste is unknown, but it must not be unpleasant since children have eaten mothballs and deodorant blocks. You can smell naphthalene in the air at a concentration of 84 parts naphthalene per one billion parts (ppb) of air. You can smell it in water when 21 ppb are present.

1-Methylnaphthalene is a naphthalene-related compound that is also called alpha methylnaphthalene. It is a clear liquid. Its taste and odor have not been described, but you can smell it in water when only 7.5 ppb are present.

Another naphthalene-related compound, 2-methylnaphthalene, is also called beta methylnaphthalene. It is solid like naphthalene. The taste and odor of 2-methylnaphthalene have not been described. Its presence can be detected at a concentration of 10 ppm in air and 10 ppb in water.

Naphthalene Analysis

Gas-liquid chromatography is used extensively to determine the naphthalene content of mixtures. Naphthalene can be separated easily from this naphthalene, the methyl- and di-methylnaphthalenes and other aromatics. Analysis of other impurities may require the use of high-resolution capillary columns (Mason, 1995). Selected methods for the analysis of naphthalene in various media are presented in Table 3.

 

 

Sample matrix

Sample Preparation

Assay Procedure a

Limit of Detection

Reference

Air

Adsorb (charcoal or Chromosorb W); desorb (carbon disulfide)

GC/FID

1–10 μg/sample; 4 μg/sample

Eller (1994) [Method 1501]; Occupational Safety and Health Administration (1990) [Method 35]

Adsorb (solid sorbent); desorb (organic solvent)

HPLC/UV

0.6–13 μg/sample

Eller (1994) [Method 5506]

Adsorb (solid sorbent); desorb (organic solvent)

GC/FID

0.3–0.5 μg/sample

Eller (1994) [Method 5515]

Drinking-, ground and surface water

Purge (inert gas); trap (Chromosorb W); desorb into capillary GC column

GC/MS

0.04 μg/L

Environmental Protection Agency (1995a) [Method 524.2]

Drinking-water and
raw source water

Purge (inert gas); trap (Chromosorb W); desorb into capillary GC column

GC/PID

0.01–0.05 μg/L

Environmental Protection Agency (1995b) [Method 502.2]

Drinking-water

Extract in liquid-solid extractor; elute with dichloromethane; dry; concentrate

HPLC/UV/FD

2.20 μg/L

Environmental Protection Agency (1990a) [Method 550.1]

Wastewater,
municipal and
industrial

Extract with dichloromethane; dry; concentrate

HPLC/UV or
GC/FID

1.8 μg/L

Environmental Protection Agency (1996a, b, 1999a) [Methods 610, 8100 & 8310]

Extract with dichloromethane;
dry; concentrate

GC/MS

1.6 μg/L

Environmental Protection Agency (1999b) [Method 625]

Add isotope-labeled analog; extract with dichloromethane; dry over sodium sulfate; concentrate

GC/MS

10 μg/L

Environmental Protection Agency (1999c) [Method 1625B]

Solid waste
matrices b

Purge (inert gas); trap (Tenax or Chromosorb W); desorb into capillary GC column

GC/PID

0.06 μg/L

Environmental Protection Agency (1996c) [Method 8021B]

Purge (inert gas); trap (suitable sorbent); thermal desorption or headspace sampling or direct injection

GC/MS

0. 04–0.1 μg/L

Environmental Protection Agency
(1996d) [Method 8260B]

Air sampling media,
water samples, solid
waste matrices, soil
samples

Liquid-liquid extraction or Soxhlet extraction or ultrasonic extraction or waste dilution or
direct injection

GC/MS

10 μg/L (aqueous);
660 μg/kg (soil/
sediment) (EQL) c

Environmental Protection Agency (1996e) [Method 8270C]

Soils, sludges, solid
wastes

Thermal extraction; concentrate; thermal desorption

GC/MS

0.01–0.5 mg/kg

Environmental Protection Agency (1996f) [Method 8275A]

Wastewater, soil,
sediment, solid
waste

Liquid-liquid extraction (water); Soxhlet or ultrasonic extraction (soil/sediment/waste)

GC/FT-IR

20 μg/L

Environmental Protection Agency (1996g) [Method 8410]

a Abbreviations: GC, gas chromatography; FID, flame ionization detection; FT-IR, Fourier transform infrared detection; MS, mass spectrometry; PID, photoionization detection; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; UV, ultraviolet detection; FD, fluorescence detection

b Includes: groundwater, aqueous sludges, caustic and acid liquors, waste solvents, oily wastes, mousses, tars, fibrous wastes, polymeric emulsions, filter cakes, spent carbons, spent catalysts, soils, and sediments

c EQL estimated quantitation limit

Table 3. Selected methods for analysis of naphthalene

 

The main use for naphthalene worldwide is the production of phthalic anhydride by vapor-phase catalytic oxidation, particularly in Japan and the USA, where this accounted for 73% and 60% of naphthalene demand, respectively, in 1999. Phthalic anhydride is used as an intermediate for polyvinyl chloride plasticizers, such as di (2- ethylhexyl) phthalate. Naphthalene is also used in the manufacture of a wide variety of intermediates for the dye industry; in the manufacture of synthetic resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless powder; and in the manufacture of hydro naphthalenes (Tetralin (tetrahydronaphthalene), Decalin (decahydronaphthalene)) which are used as solvents, in lubricants and in motor fuels (Mason, 1995; Lacson, 2000; O’Neil et al., 2001) Naphthalene sulfonates represent a growing outlet for naphthalene. The products are used as wetting agents and dispersants in paints and coatings and in a variety of pesticides and cleaner formulations. Naphthalene is also a starting material for the manufacture of 1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate (carbaryl), an insecticide, and several other organic compounds and intermediates (Mason, 1995; Lacson, 2000).

The use of naphthalene as a moth-repellent and insecticide is decreasing due to the introduction of chlorinated compounds such a para-dichlorobenzene. In 2000, about 6500 tonnes of naphthalene was used (in Japan (1100 tonnes), the USA (450 tonnes) and Europe (5000 tonnes)), in moth-proofing and fumigation. Another new use for naphthalene is in a production of polyethylene naphthalene for making plastic beer bottles. It has also been used in veterinary medicine in dusting powders, as an insecticide and internally as an intestinal antiseptic and vermicide (Sax & Lewis, 1987; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 1995a; Mason, 1995; Budavari, 1998; Lacson, 2000; O’Neil et al., 2001). Consumption of naphthalene by major region in selected years is presented in Table 4

.

 

End use

Japan

USA

Western Europe

1995

1999

1995

2000

1995

2000

Phthalic anhydride

137

124

66

66

42

45

Naphthalene sulfonates a

16

9

21

27

34

45

Pesticides b

2

1

17

14

15

22

Dyestuff intermediates

22

23

-

-

14

11

Other c

16

15

2

3

14

10

Total d

193

172

106

109

119

133

a Includes alkyl naphthalene sulfonates and naphthalene sulfonate–formaldehyde condensates (NSF). NSF includes concrete additives and synthetic tanning agents.

b Includes carbaryl and moth repellents.

c Includes diisopropyl naphthalene, naphthalene dicarboxylic acid, tetrahydronaphthalene (Tetralin), decahydronaphthalene (Decalin) and chloronaphthalenes.

d Totals may not equal sums of the columns because of independent rounding.

 

Table 4. Consumption of naphthalene by major region (thousand tonnes)

 



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