Iran Gas Oil Exporter
Paraffinic (or light) naphtha:
The most important application for paraffinic ("light") naphtha is as feedstock in the petrochemical production of olefins. This is also the reason they are sometimes referred to as "light distillate feedstock" or LDF. (These naphtha types may also be called "straight run gasoline" (SRG) or "light virgin naphtha" (LVN).)
using feedstock in petrochemical steam crackers leads to the process of naphtha which is heated in the presence of water vapor and the absence of oxygen or air until the hydrocarbon molecules fall apart. Olefins (ethylene / ethene, propylene / propene and butadiene) and aromatics (benzene and toluene) are The primary products of the cracking process. These are used as feedstock for derivative units that produce plastics (polyethylene and polypropylene, for example), synthetic fiber precursors (acrylonitrile), and industrial chemicals (glycols, for instance).
Another category which can be used in the petrochemical industry is "heavy", which is mostly used as feedstock for refinery catalytic reformers where they convert the lower octane naphtha to a higher octane product called reformate. Alternative names for these types are "straight run benzene" (SRB) or "heavy virgin naphtha" (HVN).
Naphtha is also used in other applications, such as:
- production of gasoline.
- industrial solvents and cleaning fluids
- An oil painting medium
- The sole ingredient in the home cleaning fluid Energine, which has been discontinued. You can purchase this type of naphtha at any hardware store.
- An ingredient in shoe polish
- An ingredient in some lighter fluids for wick type lighters such as Zippo lighters.
- An adulterant to petrol
- A fuel for portable stoves and lanterns, sold in North America as white gas or Coleman fuel.
- Historically, as a probable ingredient in Greek fire (together with grease, oil, sulfur, and naturally occurring saltpeter from the desert)
- A fuel for fire spinning, fire juggling, or other fire performance equipment which creates a brighter and cleaner yet shorter burn.
- To lightly wear the finish off guitars when preparing "relic" instruments.
- To remove oil from the aperture blades of camera lenses, which if present can slow the movement of the blades, leading to overexposure.
Naphtha is produced in different methods, which include (1) fractionation of straight-run, cracked, and reforming distillates or even fractionation of crude petroleum; (2) solvent extraction; (3) hydrogenation of cracked distillates; (4) polymerization of unsaturated compounds (olefins); and (5) alkylation processes. basically, naphtha may be a combination of product streams from more than one of these processes.
The more common method for preparation of naphtha is distillation. Depending on the design of the distillation unit, either one or two naphtha steams may be produced: firstly,a single naphtha with an end point of about 205°C and similar to straight-run gasoline or secondly, this same fraction divided into a light naphtha and a heavy naphtha. The end point of the light naphtha is varied to suit the subsequent subdivision of the naphtha into narrower boiling fractions and may be of the order of 120°C (250°F).
Sulfur compounds are most commonly removed or converted to a harmless form by chemical treatment with lye, Doctor solution, copper chloride, or similar treating agents (Speight, 1999). Hydrorefining processes (Speight, 1999) are mostly used in place of chemical treatment. As a result of using as a solvent, naphtha is selected for low sulfur content, and the usual treatment processes remove only sulfur compounds. Naphtha with a small aromatic content has a slight odor, but the aromatics increase the solvent power of the naphtha and there is no need to remove aromatics unless odor-free naphtha is specified.
The variety of applications emphasizes the versatility of naphtha. For instance, naphtha is used by paint, printing ink and polish manufacturers and in the rubber and adhesive industries as well as in the preparation of edible oils, perfumes, glues, and fats. Moreover, uses are found in the drycleaning, leather, also in the pesticide field. The characteristics that determine the suitability of naphtha for a particular use are volatility, solvent properties (dissolving power), purity, and odor (generally, the lack thereof).
The complete range of naphtha solvents may be divided, for convenience, into four different categories:
- Special boiling point spirits having overall distillation range within the limits of 30–165°C (86–329°F);
- Pure aromatic compounds namely, benzene, toluene, xylenes, or mixtures (BTX) thereof;
- White spirit or mineral spirit and naphtha, usually boiling within 150–210°C (302–410°F);
- High-boiling petroleum fractions boiling 160–325°C (320–617°F).
Because the end use dictates the required composition of naphtha, most grades are available in both high- and low-solvency categories and the various text methods can have major significance in some applications and lesser significance in others. Hence the application and significance of tests must be considered in the light of the proposed end use.
Odor is particularly important because, unlike most other petroleum liquids, many of the manufactured products containing naphtha are used in confined spaces, in factory workshops, and in the other place like home.