Iran holds the world's fourth-largest proved crude oil reserves and the world's second-largest natural gas reserves. Iran also ranks among the world's top 10 oil producers and top 5 natural gas producers. The most important route for exporting of oil from Iran and all Persian Gulf countries is the Strait of Hormuz, off the southeastern coast of Iran. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) volumes also flow through the Strait of Hormuz.
in 1963, (NPC) National Petrochemical Company was established to spearhead the development and policy-making for the petrochemical industry in Iran. the oldest petrochemical industry in the Middle East belongs to Iran. proudly in ethylene production, Iran can be introduced as a second major producer after Turkey. During 1964-1977 Razi, Abadan, Pazargad, Ahwaz carbon black, Kharg, Farabi and Shiraz expansion projects were completed.
What is Naphtha?
Naphtha is a liquid petroleum product that boils from about 30°C to approximately 200°C, although there are different grades of naphtha within this extensive boiling range that have different boiling ranges. The term "petroleum solvent" is often used synonymously with naphtha.
naphtha is hard to define precisely due to containing varying amounts of its constituents (paraffin, naphthenes, aromatics, and olefins) in different proportions, moreover, the potential isomers of the paraffin in the naphtha boiling range. Naphtha is introduced as having a boiling range and carbon number similar to those of gasoline, being a precursor to gasoline.
The so-called petroleum ether solvents are specific-boiling-range naphtha as is ligroin. Consequently, the term petroleum solvent describes unique liquid hydrocarbon fractions obtained from naphtha and used in industrial processes and formulations. These fractions are referred to as industrial naphtha. One of the important solvents is a white spirit, that is subdivided into industrial spirit [distilling between 30°C and 200°C] and white spirit [light oil with a distillation range of 135°C–200°C]. stability and purity of naphtha make special value for this awesome solvent among the other type.
basically, Naphtha is classified into two different categories, Light Naphtha, and Heavy Naphtha. Light Naphtha is used as a rubber solvent, lacquer diluent, in addition, heavy Naphtha is used as a varnish solvent, dyer's Naphtha, and cleaner's Naphtha. Volatility, solvent properties (dissolving power), purity and odor determine the suitability of Naphtha for a particular use. The use of Naphtha as an incendiary device in warfare, and as an illuminant dates back to 1200 AD. Naphtha is characterized as lean (high paraffin content) or rich (low paraffin content). The rich Naphtha with a higher proportion of naphthene content is easier to process in the platforming unit. A rich naphthene charge produces a greater volumetric yield of reformate than does a lean charge. Naphtha solvents may belong to categories such as special boiling spirit having distillation range 30-165°C, white spirit (mineral spirit) boiling 150-165°C, and high boiling petroleum fraction (160-325°C). In aromatic complexes, Naphtha is converted into basic petrochemical intermediates: Benzene, Toluene and Xylene (BTX). Petroleum Naphtha is by far most popular feedstock for aromatics production.
Paraffinic (or light) naphtha:
The most important application for paraffinic ("light") naphtha is as feedstock in the petrochemical production of olefins. This is also the reason they are sometimes referred to as "light distillate feedstock" or LDF. (These naphtha types may also be called "straight run gasoline" (SRG) or "light virgin naphtha" (LVN).)
using feedstock in petrochemical steam crackers leads to the process of naphtha which is heated in the presence of water vapor and the absence of oxygen or air until the hydrocarbon molecules fall apart. Olefins (ethylene/ethene, propylene/propene and butadiene) and aromatics (benzene and toluene) are The primary products of the cracking process. These are used as feedstock for derivative units that produce plastics (polyethylene and polypropylene, for example), synthetic fiber precursors (acrylonitrile), and industrial chemicals (glycols, for instance).
Another category which can be used in the petrochemical industry is "heavy", which is mostly used as feedstock for refinery catalytic reformers where they convert the lower octane naphtha to a higher octane product called reformate. Alternative names for these types are "straight run benzene" (SRB) or "heavy virgin naphtha" (HVN).
Naphtha is also used in other applications, such as:
- production of gasoline.
- industrial solvents and cleaning fluids
- An oil painting medium
- The sole ingredient in the home cleaning fluid Energine, which has been discontinued. You can purchase this type of naphtha at any hardware store.
- An ingredient in shoe polish
- An ingredient in some lighter fluids for wick type lighters such as Zippo lighters.
- An adulterant to petrol
- A fuel for portable stoves and lanterns, sold in North America as white gas or Coleman fuel.
- Historically, as a probable ingredient in Greek fire (together with grease, oil, sulfur, and naturally occurring saltpeter from the desert)
- Fuel for fire spinning, fire juggling, or other fire performance equipment which creates a brighter and cleaner yet shorter burn.
- To lightly wear the finish off guitars when preparing "relic" instruments.
- To remove oil from the aperture blades of camera lenses, which if present can slow the movement of the blades, leading to overexposure.
Naphtha is produced in different methods, which include (1) fractionation of straight-run, cracked, and reforming distillates or even fractionation of crude petroleum; (2) solvent extraction; (3) hydrogenation of cracked distillates; (4) polymerization of unsaturated compounds (olefins); and (5) alkylation processes. basically, naphtha may be a combination of product streams from more than one of these processes.
The more common method for preparation of naphtha is distillation. Depending on the design of the distillation unit, either one or two naphthas steam may be produced: firstly, single naphtha with an endpoint of about 205°C and similar to straight-run gasoline or secondly, this same fraction divided into light naphtha and heavy naphtha. The end point of the light naphtha is varied to suit the subsequent subdivision of the naphtha into narrower boiling fractions and may be of the order of 120°C (250°F).
Sulfur compounds are most commonly removed or converted to a harmless form by chemical treatment with lye, Doctor solution, copper chloride, or similar treating agents (Speight, 1999). Hydrorefining processes (Speight, 1999) are mostly used in place of chemical treatment. As a result of using as a solvent, naphtha is selected for low sulfur content, and the usual treatment processes remove only sulfur compounds. Naphtha with a small aromatic content has a slight odor, but the aromatics increase the solvent power of the naphtha and there is no need to remove aromatics unless odor-free naphtha is specified.
The variety of applications emphasizes the versatility of naphtha. For instance, naphtha is used by paint, printing ink and polish manufacturers and in the rubber and adhesive industries as well as in the preparation of edible oils, perfumes, glues, and fats. Moreover, users are found in dry cleaning, leather, also in the pesticide field. The characteristics that determine the suitability of naphtha for a particular use are volatility, solvent properties (dissolving power), purity, and odor (generally, the lack thereof).
The complete range of naphtha solvents may be divided, for convenience, into four different categories:
- Special boiling point spirits having overall distillation range within the limits of 30–165°C (86–329°F);
- Pure aromatic compounds namely, benzene, toluene, xylenes, or mixtures (BTX) thereof;
- White spirit or mineral spirit and naphtha, usually boiling within 150–210°C (302–410°F);
- High-boiling petroleum fractions boiling 160–325°C (320–617°F).
Because the end use dictates the required composition of naphtha, most grades are available in both high- and low-solvency categories and the various text methods can have major significance in some applications and lesser significance in others. Hence the application and significance of tests must be considered in the light of the proposed end use.
An odor is particularly important because, unlike most other petroleum liquids, many of the manufactured products containing naphtha are used in confined spaces, in factory workshops, and in the other place like home.